Thursday, August 27, 2020
Chromium Induced Toxicity Research Unique In the current examination, we speculate that cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative pressure assume a key job in chromium incited harmfulness in SISS, SISK, IEE, IEK, IEG, SICH and ICG cell lines when uncovered for 24 h. Intense poisonousness tests were led on three fish species to be specific L. calcarifer, E. suratensis and C. catla by presenting them to various focus (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L) of chromium for 96 h under static conditions and the LC50 was determined. The rate cell endurance was surveyed by various endpoints, for example, MTT, NR, AB and CB measures were acted in seven fish cell lines presented to various convergences of chromium and EC50 estimations of all the four endpoints was determined. Straight connections between's each in vitro cytotoxicity examine and the in vivo mortality information were profoundly huge. Infinitesimal assessment of cell morphology showed cell shrinkage, cell separation, vacuolations and cell expanding at most elevated convergence of chromium (50mg/L). The DNA harm and atomic discontinuity were evaluated by comet measure and Hoechst recoloring, in seven fish lines presented to various groupings of chromium. The consequence of cancer prevention agent boundary acquired show fundamentally diminished catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GSH) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and expanded degree of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the cell lines after presentation to expanding chromium in a focus subordinate way. This outcomes demonstrates that fish cell lines could be utilized as an option in contrast to entire fish utilizing cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative pressure evaluation after introduction to chromium. Watchwords: Fish cell lines, Chromium, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Oxidative pressure 1. Presentation Overwhelming metal contamination of water is a genuine ecological issue confronting the cutting edge world. At worldwide level substantial metals contamination is expanding in nature because of increment in number of ventures (Chidambaram et al. 2009). Mechanical effluents are released into the sewage waterways, streams and water system water, causing significant contamination and wellbeing risks (Baddesha and Rao 1986). Numerous mechanical wastewaters contain overwhelming metals like cadmium, lead, zinc, cobalt and chromium. The harmful overwhelming metals are for the most part ingested and get aggregated in different plant parts as free metals which may unfavorably influence the plant development and digestion (Barman and Lal 1994). Individuals and dairy cattle are seriously influenced when these metals are fused into natural pecking order as it causes bronchitis and malignant growth (Khasim et al. 1989; McGrath and Smith 1990; Nath et al. 2005). Among overwhelming metals, chromium assumes a significant job in dirtying our amphibian condition framework. In nature chromium happens predominately in two valances Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] prevails over the Cr (III) structure in characteristic waters. Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] particulates enter the oceanic medium through effluents released from calfskin tanning, materials, chrome electroplating, metal completing the process of, coloring and printing ventures and a few different enterprises. The Cr (VI) enters natural films effectively and causes cell harm by oxidative pressure (Irwin et al. 1997; Begum et al. 2006), its unselective presentation may present genuine impact on sea-going networks including fish. Poisonous impacts of Cr(VI) on enzymological/biochemical (Al-Akel and Shamsi 1996; Vutukuru et al. 2007; Oner et al. 2008), hematological (Gautam and Gupta 1989; Al-Akel and Shamsi 1996), immunological (Prabakaran et al. 2007) boundaries, endocrine poisonousness (Mishra and Mohanty 2009) and genotoxicity (Chen et al. 2011) have been accounted for in numerous teleosts angles. In natural hazard appraisal, a significant part of the poisonousness test on fish has included the utilization of lethality as the endpoint. Then again, in vivo bioassay is costly and requires immense amount of toxicant. The introduction time is just 24 h as restricted 96 h in bioassay, which could diminish the expense of work, lab offices and test time however more critically permit choices to be made all the more quickly. By and by, harmfulness testing with fish is a fundamental piece of natural hazard evaluation methods (Castano et al. 2003). For every one of these contemplations, the turn of events and utilization of in vitro tests that could gauge beginning times of harmfulness in vertebrates speak to a methodology that could be exceptionally helpful to observing natural hazard evaluation (Walker 1999). In the course of the most recent four decades, cell and tissue culture strategies have been refined and have now become a basic apparatus in natural exploration. There are a grea t deal of moral, logical and conservative reasons that help the improvement of in vitro strategies for use in ecotoxicology (Castano and Gomez-Lechon 2005; Bols et al. 2005; Schirmer, 2006; Fent 2007; Taju et al. 2012, 2013, 2014). The utilization of fish cell lines in ecological toxicology has been looked into and decidedly surveyed for the most part with respect to cytotoxicity (Babich and Borenfreund 1991; Castano et al. 2003; Fent 2001). Cytotoxicity appraisals can be promptly utilized to look at various endpoints, including estimations of cell demise (apoptosis), cell practicality, cell morphology, cell digestion, cell connection/separation, cell film porousness, expansion, development energy, genotoxicity and oxidative pressure (Maracine and Segner 1998; Li and Zhang 2002; Shuilleabhain et al. 2004; Taju et al. 2014). In the current examination, three fish species from three distinctive amphibian conditions, Lates calcarifer (Marine), Etroplus suratensis (Brackishwater) and catla (freshwater) were chosen as agents of their particular surroundings to read their appropriateness for intense harmfulness test to assess the likely danger of chromium (Cr). They are astounding food angles with a decent market request in India, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Pakistan. A few endeavors were made to concentrate in vivo intense poisonousness in Sea bass, Etroplus and Catla utilizing different toxicants (Chezhian et al. 2010; Azmat and Javed 2011, 2012; Bhat et al. 2012; Taju et al. 2012, 2013). The seven fish cell lines to be specific SISK and SISS cell lines got from L. calcarifer (Sahul Hameed et al. 2006; Parameshwaran et al. 2006b), SICH and ICG cell lines got from C. catla (Ishaq Ahmed et al. 2009b; Taju et al. 2014), and IEE, IEK and IEG cell lines got from E. suratensis (Sarath Babu et al. 2012) were utilized as in vitro measures to assess the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative pressure presented to chromium. The aftereffects of in vitro cytotoxicity were contrasted and the consequences of in vivo intense poisonousness test utilizing fish. The utilization of these cell lines for harmfulness evaluation of chromium as opposed to living fish is suggested. 2. Material and strategies 2.1. Synthetic concoctions and reagents Tissue culture media and synthetic concoctions were gotten from GIBCO (Invitrogen Corporation, USA). Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), EDTA, Trichloroacetic corrosive, DTNB [5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)], Thiobarbituric corrosive, Hydrogen peroxide, Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), Riboflavin, Hydroxylamine-HCl, Triton X-100, Ethidium bromide, Methanol, Acetic corrosive, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide and Coomassie Blue was bought from SRL synthetics, India. 2.2. Assortment of exploratory creatures Lates calcarifer and Etroplus suratensis were gathered from Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA), Chennai. Catla was gathered from a nearby lake in Walajapet, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India. The exploratory fishes were 2 3 g in body weight. Examples were moved live in oxygen packs or basins to the research center, acclimatized and kept up for 20-30 days in a saltiness scope of 5-10 ppt for E. suratensis, 20-25 ppt for L. calcarifer and in freshwater on account of C. catla (23-28oC) under a surrounding photoperiod in the research facility for 10 days before tests. The fish were taken care of with business pellet feed two times every day and starved for 24 h previously and during the examinations. 2.3. In vivo fish intense harmfulness test Fish intense harmfulness tests were directed by uncovering E. suratensis, L. calcarifer and C. catla (N = 10 for each aquarium) for 96 h to chromium under static conditions (OECD 203, 1992). Five distinct fixations chromium i.e., 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L weakened with seawater (5 ppt) and freshwater while control with ocean water and freshwater alone were tried to decide the LC50 (focus at which half of the fish populace bites the dust). The aquaria had a working volume of 30 lit dependent on the body weight of fishes (1 g fish/L). Dead fishes were checked and expelled quickly consistently. All the examinations were directed in triplicates. Mortalities were recorded after the rule for fish intense harmfulness OECD 203 (1992). 2.4. Fish Cell lines An aggregate of seven cell lines built up from various organs of L. calcarifer (SISS-seabass spleen, SISK-kidney), E. suratensis (IEE Etroplus eye, IEG gill, IEK kidney) and C. catla (SICH Catla heart, ICG gill) were tried for their sensitivities to chromium. These fish cell lines were spread at 28oC in Leibovitzs L-15 medium (pH 7.0 - 7.4) with 2mM L-glutamine, 10% fetal ox-like serum (FBS), penicillin 100 IU/ml and streptomycin 100 ÃâÃ¢ µg/ml. The osmolarity ran from 300 to 360 mOsm kg-1. These cells were sub-refined each 2-3 days utilizing standard methodology. Cells at exponential development stage were collected and utilized for in vitro cytotoxicity tests. 2.5. In vitro cytotoxicity test utilizing fish-determined cell lines SISS, SISK, IEE, IEK, IEG, SICH and ICG cells at exponential development stage were gathered and weakened to a convergence of 105 cells/ml in Leibovitzs L-15 medium with 10% FBS. After tumult, the cells were added to each well of 96-well tissue culture plates at the centralization of 2 x 104/well and brooded for the time being at 28oC. After brooding, the medium was expelled and the cells were re-taken care of with medium c
Posted by Axton Moon at 12:12 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Progression arranging can be viewed as a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s visa to guaranteeing its manageability and business congruity. Associations, large or little, have their able and persevering individuals as their spine. Without them, their prosperity won't be conceivable regardless of whether they put in a great deal of interest in high innovation and propelled apparatuses. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a certain something, however, to have a pool of qualified and high-potential ability; itÃ¢â¬â¢s something else to guarantee that they are in the correct situations to augment their gifts and continue their inspiration. The issue comes in when a representative who is as of now possessing a basic capacity gets incapable to play out their obligations for reasons unknown. The organization should then have the option to recognize a key ability from inside the association who can top off the void, and this is the place progression arranging becomes possibly the most important factor. Progression arranging is an activity that organizations do to discover that they have solid, experienced and proficient ranking directors who can fill in as coaches to promising junior officials who can (and will one day) take on progressively basic jobs and ideally lead the organization to more noteworthy achievement. Progression arranging is tied in with ensuring that there is a certified and able chief who can accept more prominent obligations as the need emerges and at some random time. Like in any games group, the mentor depends on a profound seat of Ã¢â¬Å"second teamÃ¢â¬ individuals to supplant a Ã¢â¬Å"starterÃ¢â¬ player when fundamental. Furthermore, progression arranging is secured on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vital objectives. For example, if the organization chooses to grow its business past its present assistance zone, top administration needs to distinguish qualified abilities who can possess new posts because of another arrangement shut or supplant ranking directors in the parent organization who will be approved to the auxiliary. This implies top administration should continually be keeping watch for potential changes inside the association and rapidly recognize the labor ramifications of these turns of events. Associations that have effectively regulated progression arranging in their association have coordinated it into their everyday business tasks. Progression arranging is a nonstop action and not only an intermittent thing. Key Elements of Succession Planning The initial step to a fruitful progression arranging is having a complete and compelling ability mapping and evaluation framework. Here, the organization needs to characterize the abilities set and skills required for a specific position and/or work so as to assess if every one of its representatives are put in the position that is generally appropriate for them. Also, the organization ought to have the option to distinguish and give advancement openings and development regions for each key representative. Moreover, the organization ought to order a representative as a high-potential ability, normal entertainer or one that is problematic and unmotivated. This is to ensure that the organization apportions additional time and assets to build up the ideal individuals for the activity. This implies a high-potential ability will be given all the more preparing and advancement programs and will be presented to more development open doors contrasted and a normal entertainer. Another key component in progression arranging is to guarantee that there is a customary presentation assessment framework set up particularly for key and rising gifts in the association. For most organizations, this is done yearly; for some semi-every year or even quarterly. Whatever the case is, the organization should set clear, quantifiable, quantifiable and practical focuses against which a representative will be assessed. Through this, top administration will have the option to see who among their representatives are performing admirably against their expectations. On the off chance that there is a nonperforming representative, the organization should discover the fundamental reason for this since it may be an instance of crisscross between the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities set and the job that the person is being approached to perform. The organization at that point ought to rush to correct this issue by moving that worker to a progressively fitting situation for him and locate an increasingly appropriate ability who can assume their position. Organizations ought to likewise set up a coaching instrument and urge their ranking directors to consistently have an understudy who they think can expect their jobs later on. This understudy or student will shadow the ranking director and help the person in question perform basic undertakings to build up the required initiative and the executives abilities. Besides, organizations should encourage a workplace where there is stream of data from higher ranking than junior administrators and the other way around. Ability maintenance is likewise a significant component in progression arranging. Organizations ought to put resources into making their workers cheerful and fulfilled by giving money related (e. g. prizes and motivating forces) and non-money related Ã¢â¬Å"giftsÃ¢â¬ (e. g. representative acknowledgment programs, great human services plan, preparing and advancement projects, protected and sound workplace, and so on ). This, at that point, permits more opportunity for prepared chiefs to move their insight and offer their experience to their more youthful partners with the goal that when the opportunity arrives, junior officials can step capable. Advantages of Effective Succession Planning A viable progression arranging can achieve benefits both to the organization and the workers. Initially, the organization can be guaranteed of a steady business moored on a solid senior supervisory crew and a similarly dependable pool of second stringers made out of prepared and prepped junior workers. This, thus, will make financial specialists and investors progressively certain about the fate of the organization, which ideally prompts expanded investor esteem. With respect to the clients, they will likewise be guaranteed that their specialist co-op is in acceptable hands and will have the option to take into account their drawn out necessities. In addition, great progression arranging will spare the organization time and cash in remotely sourcing the ability who can best fill in the empty position. Outside gifts, regardless of how splendid they are, need abundant time to comprehend the business and mix with the association. In a similar way, representatives will profit by a powerful progression arranging framework as this will meet their profession improvement necessities and make their current and future jobs more clear. High-potential representatives will likewise welcome the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s considering them and furnishing them with increasingly top-level preparing and advancement programs. They will most likely feel that they are offered significance to by the organization. At long last, progression arranging gives representatives a feeling of security, realizing that they have a drawn out vocation way with the organization. This, thusly, will make the workers increasingly spurred, hopeful and forward-looking.
Posted by Axton Moon at 10:00 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
My Secondâ¦ Fifth Week Okay, so its been inexcusably long since I last wrote here. This is probably a good indicator of how busy one can get at MIT if he or she tries. :-) Physics is a continual thorn in my side, but everything else seems to be going well. The weather has been great the past couple days, Ive been meeting with various faculty to shape the perfect path for the future, Ive been working on some projects on the side Ultimately, though, what Im here to do is tell you about life at MIT. Selections all over and the fate of the MIT Class of 2010 is (more or less) set in stone. Youre eagerly awaiting your decisions now, for the first time ever, *online* and Im here thinking about how awesome CPWs going to be next month. I cant wait to meet you all, really! French class is a lot of fun, and were investigating some interesting topics in my intercultural communication course. In the next couple of weeks, Ill write a five-page paper on the different communication cultures of men and women, with preparatory reading of You Just Dont Understand by Deborah Tannen. It sounds more like a marriage counseling book than like something youd come across at MIT, but I suppose most anything can be defined as a culture. Indeed, we spend the first class day doing just that. :) Ive kept a strong outlook of what lies ahead, especially as the second semester wears on. I continue to lean toward a major in management science, with a keen focus on transportation systems through a concentration in operations research, and minors in Applied International Studies, and in something within the urban studies/planning program. And for later, Im looking at the MS in transportation offered by the civil engineering department. After a long week of homework and meetings, I took today off and went for a walk around downtown Boston. I hadnt talked to my Dad in about a week, and so just as I was holding an ice cream cup near the theater district, he called. I had to balance the cup on a concrete post for a few minutes before I could explain that it would be a lot better if I could call back later. :-P Okay, thats that. If I had something truly interesting to write, Id be writing it, but sometimes classes just hum along, the days substance providing for little reflection. How are you guys spending these pre-Spring Break days, and furthermore, what are you doing for Spring Break?
Posted by Axton Moon at 7:42 AM
Monday, May 25, 2020
Analysis of Platos Allegory of the Cave Platos Allegory of the Cave presents a vision of humans as slaves chained in front of a fire observing the shadows of things on the cave wall in front of them. The shadows are the only reality the slaves know. Plato argues that there is a basic flaw in how we humans mistake our limited perceptions as reality, truth and goodness. The allegory reveals how that flaw affects our education, our spirituality and our politics. The flaw that Plato speaks about is trusting as real, what one sees - believing absolutely that what one sees is true. In The Allegory of the Cave, the slaves in the caves know that the shadows, thrown on the wall by the fire behind them, are real. If they were toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The people must teach the others of the reality outside of the cave, outside of the slaves reality. These are the philosophers. The capacity to learn exists in the soul. Humans need to use their whole soul to learn, not just use their eyes. Plato writes, the power and capacity of learning exists in the soul already; and that just as the eye was unable to turn from the darkness to light without the whole body, so too the instrument of knowledge can only by the movement of the whole soul be turned from the world of becoming into that of being. (Jacobus 320). According to Plato, human beings misperception about reality also affects ones spiritual growth. When the slave makes the ascent and sees the sun, he might mistake it for God. Plato writes, He will then argue that this [the sun] is he, the guardian of...the visible world...the cause of all things (Jacobus 318). Having moved from darkness into light, the slave comes to the conclusion that this bright light must be God. Plato argues that one?s soul holds knowledge of what is true. When one learns, one simply remembers. People originate from Heaven where they knew the truth. In the Bible it states, Though outwardly we are wasting away, yet inwardly we are being renewed day by day (Corinthians II, 4:16). One is renewed day by day by remembering things that their soul knows, but that they have forgotten. Plato discreditsShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Platos Allegory Of The Cave864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOn the surface of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ it is just a simple piece, but the main purpose of the piece is to explain people living in a world of face value and having individuals break free from the main idea to create a new sense of what the world is truly about. In here, Plato uses the writing style of allegory to encompass the use of imagery and symbolism to explain his purpose. He also uses very clever dialogue with constant repetition to represent a bigger idea about the philosophy withRead MorePlatos Allegory of the Cave - Analysis and Summary973 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatos Allegory of the Cave - Analysis and Summary The Allegory of the Cave by Plato represents an extended metaphor that is to contrast the way in which we perceive and believe in what is reality. The thesis behind his allegory is the basic opinion that all we perceive are imperfect reflections of the ultimate Forms, which subsequently represent truth and reality. In his story, Plato establishes a cave in which prisoners are chained down and forced to look upon the front wall of the caveRead MorePlatos Allegory of the Cave - Analysis and Summary987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatos Allegory of the Cave - Analysis and Summary The Allegory of the Cave by Plato represents an extended metaphor that is to contrast the way in which we perceive and believe in what is reality. The thesis behind his allegory is the basic opinion that all we perceive are imperfect reflections of the ultimate Forms, which subsequently represent truth and reality. In his story, Plato establishes a cave in which prisoners are chained down and forced to look upon the front wall of the caveRead MoreAnalysis Of Platos Allegory Of The Cave1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the allegory written by Plato titled Ã¢â¬Å"Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ , Plato discusses the concept of seeking knowledge and gaining wisdom. He uses a story of prisoners trapped into a cave to represent the confines of reality that humans are put into, and a lone prisoner exiting the cave to represent a philosopher seeking a greater understanding. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s writing tells of the flaw that all humans share, which is the fact that we believe our perceptions to be the abs olute, incontestable truth. It is thisRead MoreAnalysis of Platos Allegory of the Cave948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatos Allegory of the Cave Platos Allegory of the Cave is also termed as the Analogy of the Cave, Platos Cave, or the Parable of the Cave. It was used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate our nature in its education and want of education. It comprises of a fictional dialogue between Platos teacher Socrates and Platos brother Glaucon. Socrates gives a description of a group of people who spent their lifetime facing a blank wall chained to the wall of a caveRead MoreRhetorical Analysis of Platos the Allegory of the Cave2111 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEden Scharer Darrin Broadway English III-4 5th December, 2010 From Darkness to Sunlight: An Analysis of the Allegory of the Cave Imagine yourself sitting inside a dark, damp, cave where the only thing you can see are moving shadows on the cave wall in front of you. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t move anywhere or see anything besides the shadows, and these are the only things youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen for your entire life, so these moving dark images are the most real things youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever known. At some point in our childhood weRead MorePlatos The Republic: Analysis of the Chapter Entitled Allegory of the Cave588 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Republic comes a chapter entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ .(Ã¢â¬Å"PlatoÃ¢â¬ ) PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Allegory of the Cave describes ignorance and the process of enlightenment. The cave symbolizes a prison for the mind. Cave dwellers only know of the one reality presented in the cave, yet it is not reality at all. The cave dwellers are ignorant, knowing only one way and not trying to broaden their minds. Plato uses chains and shackles to represent the mental bondage of the cave dwellers. In spite of the bondage, fewRead MoreAn Analysis of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Allegory of the Cave and the Importance of Light in Discovering Truth1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestranscends the exclusivity of the contemplative and the active lives. He defines the ultimate truth as Ã¢â¬Å"aletheiaÃ¢â¬ , which literally translates to mean Ã¢â¬Å"unhiddenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"that which does not remain unnoticedÃ¢â¬ . Through his use of the term and his allegory of the cave, Plato makes the strong implication that philosophers must actively seek to discover the absolute truth, rather than relying on t raditional methods of contemplation and the persuasive tone of rhetoric to prove its existence. To better explainRead More Dantes Inferno Essay888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Dantes use of allegory in the Inferno greatly varies from Platos quot;Allegory of the Cavequot; in purpose, symbolism, characters and mentors, and in attitude toward the world. An analysis of each of these elements in both allegories will provide an interesting comparison. Dante uses allegory to relate the sinners punishment to his sin, while Plato uses allegory to discuss ignorance and knowledge. Dantes Inferno describes the descent through Hell from the upper level of the opportunists toRead MoreSynthesis of Truman Show and Platos Allegory of the Cave1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCritical Analysis of The Truman Show and Platos Allegory of the Cave When The Truman Show was released in 1998, it was just another popular Hollywood flick, but its story is closely related to Platos Allegory of the Cave. The plot line for the movie follows this classic tale in many ways, some more obvious then others. As with most cinematic treachery, the movies similarities are no coincidence. The writers drew from Platos classic because it is such a universal story and is something
Posted by Axton Moon at 2:01 AM
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The first artificial heart for humans was invented and patented in the 1950s, but it wasnt until 1982 that a working artificial heart, the Jarvik-7, was successfully implanted in a human patient.Ã Early Milestones As with many medical innovations, the first artificial heart was implanted in an animal -- in this case, a dog. Soviet scientist Vladimir Demikhov, a pioneer in the field of organ transplantation, implanted an artificial heart into a dog in 1937. (It wasnt Demikhovs most famous work, however Ã¢â¬â today he is mostly remembered for performing head transplants on dogs.) Interestingly, the first patented artificial heart was invented by American Paul Winchell, whose primary occupation was as a ventriloquist and comedian. Winchell also had some medical training and was assisted in his endeavor by Henry Heimlich, who is remembered for the emergency choking treatment that bears his name. His creation was never actually put into use. The Liotta-Cooley artificial heart was implanted into a patient in 1969 as a stopgap measure; it was replaced with a donors heart a few days later, but the patient died soon thereafter.Ã The Jarvik 7Ã The Jarvik-7 heart was developed by American scientist Robert Jarvik and his mentor, Willem Kolff.Ã In 1982, Seattle dentist Dr. Barney Clark was the first person implanted with the Jarvik-7, the first artificial heart intended to last a lifetime. William DeVries, an American cardiothoracic surgeon, performed the surgery. The patient survived 112 days. It has been hard, but the heart itself has pumped right along, Clark said in the months following his history-making surgery. Subsequent iterations of the artificial heart have seen further success; the second patient to receive the Jarvik-7, for instance, lived for 620 days after implantation. People want a normal life, and just being alive is not good enough, Jarvik has said.Ã Despite these advances, less than two thousand artificial hearts have been implanted, and the procedure is generally used as a bridge until a donor heart can be secured. Today, the most common artificial heart is the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart, accounting for 96% of all artificial heart transplants. And it doesnt come cheap, with a price tag of around $125,000.
Posted by Axton Moon at 8:55 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s fascist use of power to force Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and even the halls of Elsinore to do his bidding is not without its consequences; time and time again, the familial bonds and those of friendship are shattered as a result of his corruption, just as countless mirrors in the Royal Shakespeare CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of the story are. For instance, the incompetent Polonius is struck down at the line: Ã¢â¬Å"How now, a rat? Dead for a ducat, dead,Ã¢â¬ (3.4.24). In the original text, he is shanked with a blade through a curtain; however, in the film at question, he is shot through a closet door covered in a mirror. As a result, the mirror fractures. The fracturing of the mirror is not merely a literal occurrence, but a changeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The broken glass then appears again when the Queen learns of OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s insanity: Ã¢â¬Å"Her speech is nothing,/ Yet the unshaped use of it doth move/ The hearers to collectionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ (4.5.7-9). Getrude stairs at herself in the shattered pane as she hears this disheartening description of young Ophelia drifting from reality only enough for the hearer to still be able to try to piece together some broken semblance of an anguished thought. Ophelia even steps into the view of the audience by way of standing within the reflection of the cracked mirror, reflecting her own shattered state, but not before Gertrude thinks on the tragedy surrounding the members of the court: Ã¢â¬Å"To my sick soul, as sinÃ¢â¬â¢s true nature is,/ Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss,Ã¢â¬ (4.5.17-18). Looking into what once was a reflection of a whole person, Gertrude is able to see that the now distorted reflection of her own countenance is more accurate than a whole mirror could ever portray, since her family and herself have been shattered. Finally, as Hamlet and Horatio discuss the news of the old school mate s death, Horatio implores, Ã¢â¬Å"Why, what a king is this!Ã¢ â¬ (5.2.63). This counsel is held, once again, in front of a shattered mirror. Hamlet and Horatio both see the work of the King as a parody of what should be, and know that the root of all of this corruption is the heinous lord of Elsinore. ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s treachery isShow MoreRelatedHamlet Character Analysis Essay1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthrone for as long as he does becomes significantly more vivid and understandable for an audience when seen as it was intended, on stage, especially when a seasoned organization such as the Royal Shakespeare Company is given control of the production. The 2009 cinematic adaptation of Hamlet by the Royal Shakespeare Company perfectly portrays the deceit and damage spread by a psychotic man who shattered a kingdom just as a projectile hits a glass pane, causing the creeping branches of madness to spreadRead MoreCorruption of Society in George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 and William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet806 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The corruption of society in George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 and William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet results both in the loss of innocence and the destruction of sanity. Winston from 1984 stood his grounds throughout the book, but the society standards and rules created by Big Brother soon consume him. Similarly, the entire Kingdom of Denmark bombarded Hamlet with betrayal amongst his own family and loved ones such that drove him into madness. This madness spread through both books in revenge of what the corruptedRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Essay3604 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesforty years and was then in her late sixties. The prospect of ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the question of who would succeed her was a subject of grave anxiety at the time, since Elizabeth had no children, and the only person with a legitimate royal claim, James of Scotland, was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and therefore represented a political faction to which Elizabeth was opposed. (When Elizabeth died in 1603, James did inherit the throne, becoming King James I.) It isRead MoreHamlet and ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Power Struggle Essay1852 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof the play the power struggle that had been between Hamlet and Claudius comes to a conclusion as Gertrude, Laertes, Claudius and Hamlet die. Throughout the play Laertes, Horatio and Gertrude choose a side to be on, either between HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s and ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s who both are trying to obtain the utmost power. Claudius is seen in Hamlets eyes as a horrible person because he convicted murder and incest. Claudius had killed the king of Denmark, Old Hamlet, to obtain the position of the throne. He had beenRead More The Character of Claudius in Shakespeares Hamlet Essay2062 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Character of Claudius in Hamlet Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeare presents Claudius as a character with many faces yet the audience can clearly understand his motives and ambition throughout the play. His character does however change and we clearly see how his evilness and weakness increases as his need to escape discovery and his clandestine nature in doing so, is revealed.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is in Act one scene two that we are first introduced to the character of Claudius. The impression madeRead MoreNature Of Society In Shakespeares Hamlet1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesable to recognise an uncomfortable and powerful truth, simply living is not being. 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The tragedies of Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides and Homer have themes like royal murders, assassinations by near relatives, the supernatural, ghostly visits, and vengeful spirits of the dead- themes which reappear in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies with a difference. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic hero Hamlet and AeschylusÃ¢â¬â¢s Orestes have a great deal in common. Both the plays are set in a time whenRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Ghost 2757 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesthe rank sweat of an enseamed bed,/ Stewed in corruption, honeying and making love/ Over nasty sty.Ã¢â¬â¢). Even though HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s accusations are categorical and sharp, his charges are essentially unfounded fabrications derived from the GhostÃ¢â¬â¢s infuriated divulgence. Moreover, GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s state of anguish proves her to be innocent of these allegations, therefore causing Hamlet to gradually relinquish the thought that Gertrude is a participant of ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s murder and start to consider her as a clueless
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Critical Review on Business Process Management. Answer: Introduction: The outcome of research investing years of hard work and dedication has uncovered holistic understanding of business process management and the holistic understanding has described the relation between organizational culture and business process management. According to the article Developing an Organizational Culture Supportive of Business Process Management by authors Sanja Tumbas and Theresa Schmiedel, the effect of organizational culture and its elements on the successful business process management is discussed in this article. According to the authors, business process management and it successful establishment is associated with a supportive environment in the organization; which can only be brought forward with a co-operational and inclusive organizational culture in place (kerlavaj, temberger and Dimovski, 2007F). The statement made by the author indicated at the fact that there are different factors and approaches to a supportive organizational culture that facilitates better and more fruitful business process management in the organization. And in the article the authors progress to evaluate different strategies for developing an organizational culture that will fester the growth and establishment of a sound organizational culture. This assignment will attempt to critically evaluate the article by Sanja Tumbas and Theresa Schmiedel and will attempt to provide an analysis of the article along with criticizing it (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). According to Weske, the culture of given organization serves as the very foundation on which the growth and sustainability of the business process is based on (Weske, 2012). Therefore, it can be said that without the prevalence of an organizational culture that is supportive, collaborative and proactive, successful business process management cannot be achieved. In the article under criticism in the assignment, the authors propose organizational culture as professional values and principles shared by the employees of an organization that is reflected on the cumulative manifestation on their actions and performance as a whole. Therefore, the authors propose that organizational culture has a visible result on the development of the organisational performance and business process management. Other authors have opined that the threat by the dynamic market changes on the organizational culture can be overcome if adjusted with the adequate business process management and supportive and com municative culture in the organization, which aligns with what the authors of this article under review in the assignment have argued. The main purpose of this article is to judge how supportive changes can be implemented to improve the organizational culture in a manner that can facilitate effective business process management (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). The background of this research article can be considered broad, informative and could establish the need for this study; however, details regarding how this study bridges the gap left behind by the literature previously published are not explained perfectly. Aims and objectives: Aims and objectives are undoubtedly a highly important part of the structure, which carefully and succinctly conveys to the readers what the research is aiming to achieve and what questions is the research study is aiming to address (Brocke and Rosemann, 2014). This article lacks an individual aims and objective section, which is undoubtedly a drawback for the article. Although, the article has described in background and introduction opting for a functionalist view for the research study, and the research question asked in the article is How can an organization develop a culture supportive of BPM? which is addressed by a detailed review of literature and a case controlled study. A literature review is known to act as the connection between the data and information available already in the journals regrading the topic of the research being conducted and the need for further investigation that the study under consideration is hoping to achieve. The literature review for this article is extensive, concise and detailed which receives appreciation; the research study has taken the aid of databases like AIS Electronic Library2 , Science Direct, and Ebsco; which are reliable and authentic databases, excellent for academic researching purposes. The screening for relevant articles to include in the research study had been efficient as well, as it excluded anything that is not perfectly aligned with the need and requirement of research study under question. For the structuring of the articles selected and construction of the literature review is concept centric approach which allows the literature to be compartmentalized into different sections for more organized and polished structure to be attained; the research article also provided a table explaining the segmentalization of the articles for better understaffing of the readers which is extremely appreciable (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). Aside from the structure construction of the review, the content selected for this study is carefully and succinctly described as well. In the very first section the review discusses the prevalence of theoretical basis of culture and its role in successful business process management. In this section the importance of CERT values in business process management and culture construction is discussed in detail. CERT stands for the amalgamation of customer retention, excellence, responsibility and teamwork are considered to be the most important basis of successful business process management according to Van Der Aalst; the authors of this research article have explained in detail the how not exercising CERT values in the organization can bring forth culture resistance and in turn affect successful implementation of BPM in the organization (Van Der Aalst 2013). The research study opts of an empirical approach to judges the impact of inadequate organizational culture on the lack of proper BPM in the case selected. Empirical approach taken by the research article: As mentioned above in the assigmment6 the main purpose behind the research article had been to discover strategies to improve the organisational culture characterized by organizational support, cooperation and collaboration to support business process management fluidity. The research article emphasizes on a global IT company ITleader that provides supportive softwares for BPM to other organizations, and the authors hear argue that this case forms an excellent suitable basis to judge how internal process excellence initiative and change management can facilitate supportive organizational culture and help in BPM (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). Concentrating on the methodological procedure selected for this research study, exploratory study shows the qualitative research design based on a case control study. As the main purpose of this research study had been to discover how it later the company chosen for this research study can develop organisational culture that supports and fortified their BPM initiatives, the authors very tactfully compartmentalized the entire research into two distinct phases. The first phase analyses the culture development needs of the company and the second phase comprised of 5 semi structured interviews with the employees in order to understand the employee perception regarding a BPM supportive organisational culture and how it can be facilitated. This empirical approach help the authors to gain an understanding of how culturally fed the organization chosen is actually for the BPM approved selected for this research study and the interview findings help the authors to attend the perspective of the Employees with the scenario (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). The next the next phase for this research study had been to identify the strategies that will help in development of the culture the ideal leader has to maintain a successful business process management scenario. Emphasizing on the CERT values, the research discovered that the organization selected for this research study had much room for improvement in the organisational culture specifically in the sectors of internal customer orientation and accountability. The interview was successful in discovering that organization it essentially proper leadership and Organization in the entire business process management sector, find a motor interview was also successful in discovering that employees have purchased this deficiency in the entire organization culture and business process management as a organization cultural norms and have habituated to the entire process (Ko, Lee and Wah Lee, 2009). The personal excellence initiative taken by the author in this research study has to be apprecia ted as it could uncover the exact needs of the organization and how these needs can be addressed. The entire procedure helped the authors to device the strategies and implements them as well (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). Identification of the strategies and activities: The very first strategy selected was sent out around customer orientation based on both external and internal customers, which encouraged the customers to engage in a activity that will be enhance the efficiency of the employees in customer handling and enforce more involvement in the entire scenario (Harmon 2010). In order to facilitate personal excellence initiative, the scheme of continuous improvement was selected, by taking initiatives like individual incentive system, process performance monitoring, and overall innovation. In order to improve the responsibility or accountability of the employees the help of awareness and clear governance rule was selected and to improve the teamwork of the organization face to face informal interaction, cross functional meetings and open communication was enabled (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). For success for business process management and sustainability of the organisation, and many research studies have established that fact. This research study has been successful in few sectors. First and foremost this article comprises of several research implications, this article has successfully utilized the BPM culture model of worm group and Sunil in order to identify an organisational culture fit for successful BPM, effectively taking the first important steps towards eliminating the gap left Behind in the literature examining how cultural fit can be achieved in order to facilitate excellent BPM (Trkman 2010). vom Brocke and Sinnl have opined that the concept of cultural fit is intricately aligned with performance management and organisational growth. And in order to maintain a sustainable business process management, how comfortable and safe the employees feel in the organization is an extremely essential element (vom Brocke and Sinnl 2011). Organisational culture supports and cooperates with employees they will inevitably be prepared to put the best effort to increase both live performance and quality, which in turn will improve the business process management and make the entire procedure easier and less time consuming (Dumas et al. 2013). This research study has successfully used BPM supportive CERT values which is an essential instrument for management evaluation in order to identify the organisational culture development needs of a company and then based on those needs devise a strategy that will fit organization and help them achieve the business process management in that the company has set for. The implications for practice that a research article under criticism has able to achieve is how CRT value measurement scale can be utilized to support organization in both identify of overall cultural development Strategies and enforcing precise developmental activities that will address the particular needs of the organization (Chang 2016). This factor dependent specific activities can be a fertile ground for further research the comments describing how these specific activity scheme can help organizations attain optimal growth in both quality and productivity (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). According to the research article by kerlavaj, temberger and Dimovski, a supportive organisational culture can be the missing link between performance improvement and business process management, the improvement in culture development will inevitably improve both performance and is the process of business management (kerlavaj, temberger and Dimovski 2007). This research study has helped in identifying that missing link and has also attempted to formulate an effective strategy that can help restore that essential element which can enhance booked the performance of the organization and help in better organization of the entire business process (Tumbas and Schmiedel, 2013). Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that this research study has been an excellent literary research which will help business organization attend an idea of how culture affects the business process management profoundly. Although the only limitation that this research study has had, the dependence of this research on a single case study. Has to be mentioned in this context that for a research to be relatable and transferable, the generalizability of the findings is extremely important which can the applied to any related scenario and is expected to you will the similar results. The dependency of this article on the case of it leader restricts that generalizability and transferability of the findings. Along with that it also needs to be mentioned that the findings of this research, Albert being revolutionary, I still limited to the perceptions of a limited number of interview participants. It not only decreases the generalizability of the findings but also enhance is a chance of the findings to be biased by their personal perceptions. Hands on a concluding note it can be said that romantic after research study in the methodology and techniques utilised has to be appreciated, and if the restricted generalizability probable bias of this research overlooked then this research can be the fertile ground for extensive empirical research that can help organizations improve their culture exponentially and intense see the results in the business process management References: Alvesson, M., 2012.Understanding organizational culture. Sage. Brocke, J.V. and Rosemann, M., 2014.Handbook on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People and Culture. Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated. Chang, J.F., 2016.Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. CRC Press. Dumas, M., La Rosa, M., Mendling, J. and Reijers, H.A., 2013.Fundamentals of business process management(Vol. 1, p. 2). Heidelberg: Springer. Harmon, P., 2010. Business process change: A guide for business managers and BPM and Six Sigma professionals. Morgan Kaufmann. Hartnell, C.A., Ou, A.Y. and Kinicki, A., 2011. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions. Ko, R.K., Lee, S.S. and Wah Lee, E., 2009. Business process management (BPM) standards: a survey. Business Process Management Journal, 15(5), pp.744-791. Rosemann, M. and vom Brocke, J., 2015. The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on business process management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Schein, E.H., 2010.Organizational culture and leadership(Vol. 2). John Wiley Sons. Schmiedel, T., Vom Brocke, J. and Recker, J., 2014. Development and validation of an instrument to measure organizational cultures support of Business Process Management.Information Management,51(1), pp.43-56. kerlavaj, M., temberger, M. I., and Dimovski, V., 2007. Organizational learning culturethe missing link between business process change and organizational performance. International journal of production economics, 106(2), 346-367. Trkman, P., 2010. The critical success factors of business process management.International journal of information management,30(2), pp.125-134. Tumbas, S. and Schmiedel, T., 2013. Developing an Organizational Culture Supportive of Business Process Management. InWirtschaftsinformatik(p. 115). Van Der Aalst, W.M., 2013. Business process management: a comprehensive survey. ISRN Software Engineering, 2013. vom Brocke, J. and Sinnl, T., 2011. Culture in business process management: a literature review.Business Process Management Journal,17(2), pp.357-378. Weske, M., 2012. Business process management architectures. In Business Process Management (pp. 333-371). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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